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Unit 4 直接引语变间接引语及巩固练习(原创八下专题8)  

2009-03-22 14:06:39|  分类: 课堂延伸 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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亲爱的同学们,直接引语变间接引语可能让你困惑,细读下面说明,做做题,反复看,你会很受益!

Unit 4 直接引语变间接引语及巩固练习

引述别人的话时,一般采用两种方式:一是引用别人的原话,把它放在引号内,称为直接引语;二是用自己的话加以转述,被转述的话不放在引号内,称为间接引语。间接引语在大多数情况下是一个宾语从语

John said, "I'm going to London with my father."

约翰说:"我要和父亲到伦敦去。"(引号内是直接引语)

John said that he was going to London with his father.

约翰说,他要和他父亲去伦敦。(宾语从句是间接引语)

直接引语变成间接引语时,要注意:人称变化、时态变化、宾语从句要用陈述句语序

一、如何变人称:

将直接引语变间接引语时。人称变化有下面有一句顺口溜:一随主。二随宾,第三人称不更新”。

“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化如:

She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "She said her brother wanted to go with her.

“二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称,或被第二人你所修饰。从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语。也可以用第一人称,如:

He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"He asked Kate how her sister was then

“第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时。如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化如: Mr Smith said "Jack is a good worker"Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker

二、如何变时态:

直接引语在改为间接引语时、时态需要做相应的调整。

在直接引语中的时态

在间接引语应变成的时态

一般现在时→ 一般过去时   现在进行时→过去进行时

一般将来时→ 过去将来时   现在完成时→过去完成时

一般过去时→过去完成时    过去完成时→过去完成时

例如:1.She said. "I have lost a pen." She said she had lost a pen.

2. She said. "We hope so." She said they hoped so.

3. She said. "He will go to see his friend." She said he would go to see his friend.

但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。

①直接引语是客观真理。

 "The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth”, the teacher told me. The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth.

②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:

Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"

Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street

③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如:

Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980."

Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980.

④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如:He said, "I get up at six every morning" He said he gets up at six every morning

如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:

1. Peter said. "You had better come have today" Peter said I had better go there that day

2. The teacher said to me . "You must pay more attention to your pronunciation."

The teacher told me that I must (have to ) pay more attention to my pronunciation.

3. He said , "I could swim when I was only six ."

He said that he could swim when he was only six.

如果直接引语中含有since, when, while 引导的表示过去时间的状语从句,在变为间接引语时,只改变主句中的谓语动词,从句的一般过去时则不变。如:

He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ."

He told me that he had taught English since he came here.

三、如何变知识代词、地点状语、时间状语及动词

直接引语变间接引语,状语变化有其内在规律,时间状语由“现在”改为“原来”;地点状语,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代词修饰的状语,由“此”改为“彼”。如:

直接引语→间接引语

指示代词 thisthat   thesethose  

时间状语 nowthen  todaythat day  tonightthat night

this(week, term, year…) that (week, term, year…)

yesterdaythe day before  

last week (term, year…) the week (term, year…)

two weeks (term, year…)agotwo weeks (term, year…) before

tomorrowthe next (following) day  

next week (term, year…) the next week (term, year…)

地点状语 herethere  

动词     comego  bringtake   

四、如何变句型:

①直接引语如果是陈述句,间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如:

She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."

She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.

②直接引语是一般疑问句或反意疑问句时,间接引语应改为由whetherif引导的宾语从句.如:1He said, "Can you swim, John?" He asked John if he could swim.

2"You have finished the homework, havent you?" my mother asked.

My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.

③直接引语是选择疑问句时,间接引语应改为由whether.or引导的 宾语从句。

He asked me,"Do you go to school by bus or by bike?"

He asked me if I went to school by bus or my bike.

He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.

④直接引语如果是特殊问句,间接引语应该改为由疑问代词或疑问副词引导的宾语从句(宾语从句必须用陈述句语序)。

She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?" She asked me when they had their dinner.

⑤直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:

1. "Dont make any noise," she said to the children.

She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise.

2. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she. She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.

⑥直接引语是感叹句时间接引语为what how 引导,也可以用that 引导。

1. She said, "What a lovely day it is !" She said what a lovely day it was .

She said that it was a lovely day.

直接引语变间接引语巩固练习

I.单项填空

1. He said, "I am living with my brother."

He said that _____ was living with his brother.

A. I   B. you   C. he   D. they

2. He said, "You are sure to get a warm welcome there."

He said that we _____ sure to get a warm welcome there.

A. am  B. was  C. were  D. are

3. She says, "Something is wrong with my bike."

She says that something is wrong with ______ bike.

A. my  B. a    C. his   D. her

4. He has said, "I will not do so again."

He has said that he ____ not do so again.

A. will  B. must  C. would    D. do

5. The teacher said, "My son had the same experience as the little boy."

The teacher said that his son had ___ the same experience as the little boy.

A. been  B. have  C. had  D. done

6. She said to me, "My mother took me to an exhibition yesterday."

She told me that her mother had taken ____ to an exhibition the day before.

A. she  B. me  C. her  D. you

7. You said to me, "I saw the film two days ago."

You told me that you had seen the film ____

A. two days  B. two days before  C. two days ago  D. yesterday

8. He said to his younger sister, "You may come with me."

He told his younger sister that _____ with him.

A. you may come B. you might come  C. she might come D. she might go

9. The student said to me, "She has made a close study of the problem."

The student told me that she ______ a close study of the problem.

A. has make B. have made  C. had make  D. had made

10. He said, "I live here."  

He said that he lived___________.

A. there  B. here  C. in there  D. at there

Ⅱ、将下列句子改为间接引语

11.The teacher said to his class, "Don't waste your time!"

12.She said to her son, "Don't forget to turn off the light when you leave the room!"

13.His father said to him, "Think, before you do it!"

14.The teacher said to his students, "Tell briefly in your own words how penicillin was discovered."

15.The leader said to him, "Please write your report as short as possible."

16.He said to me, "Let me have a look at the book you bought."

17.He said, "I am proud of my motherland."

18.John said, "I wrote back telling him about it yesterday."

19.I said, "I will give her some advice tomorrow."

20."You are wasting your time day-dreaming!" he said to Mary.

21."You have already done your duty," he said to her.

22.Mary wrote in her letter, "Mr. Liu, when will you come to America?"

23."Don't risk your lives, men!" the captain warned.

24."I'll be very busy today," said the man.

25.She said, "We have worked on the school farm for two weeks."

26.He said, "I'm reviewing my lessons."

27.They said, "We arrived this morning."

28.She said to me, "Have lunch with us."

29.The teacher asked, "Are you ready?"

30.Betty asked Mary, "Are you having your lunch now?"

31."Be careful, and don't cut your finger," he said to me.

32.He said to the old woman, "Don't worry. I'll take you there."

33."Did you go to the meeting yesterday?" she asked me.

34."Will you please be quiet?" she said.

35.The man asked me, "How many times have you been here?"

III、将下列句子改成直接引语

36.I said that there was not any trouble, and I was waiting for my change.

37.They said that they wouldn't go by air only because they hadn't enough money.

38.The driver said that he hadn't seen the signal, so he hadn't stopped.

39.My brother told me that he was surely to be able to master English.

40.He said that he hadn't quite understood that sentence, and asked me if I could translate it into Chinese.

41.His father told Mike that he ought to work even harder.

42.He told his assistants that he would not give up the experiment.

43.I warned the children not to go swimming in the lake.

44.My mother said that I looked rather tired, and I'd better go and lie for a while.

45.Della asked Jim to give it to her quickly.

46.He said that he could hardly support his family.

47.You said that you had woven the cloth by then.

48.Mary said just now that she would come again tomorrow.

49.The woman asked him why he had to sleep in the open air.

50.The headmaster suggested that the students should go skating.

51.He told me to go on with my work.

52.He asked me whether I had any difficulty.

53.Li Ming said that he joined the League in August 1980.

54.He asked me whether I was a Party member or a League Member.

55.Wang told the teacher that he was not feeling well that day.

56.Zhang told me that he had a meeting that afternoon and that he couldn't go with me.

57.I asked my mother whether she had seen the exhibition.

58.The teacher asked me if everything was ready.

59.My aunt asked me to keep warm and not to go out.

60.The worker told me that it would take me two days to finish the work.

附:Unit3直接引语变间接引语答案

1-5 CCDCC 6-10 CBDCA

11. The teacher told his class not to waste their time.

12. She told her son not to forget to turn off the light when he lefts the room.

13. His father told him to think before he did it.

14. The teacher ordered his students to tell briefly in their own words how penicillin had been discovered.

15. the leader told him to write his reports as short as possible.

16. He told me to let him have a look at the book I had bought.

17. He said he was proud of his motherland.

18. John said he had written back telling him about it the day before.

19. I said I would give her some advice the next day.

20. He told Mary that she was wasting her time day-dreaming.

21. He told her that she had already done her duty.

22. Mary asked Mr. Liu in her letter when he would go to America.

23. The captain warned the men no to risk their lives.

24. The man said he would be very busy that day.

25. She said they had worked on the school farm for two weeks.

26. He said he was reviewing his lessons.

27. They said they had arrived that morning.

28. She told me to have lunch with her.

29. The teacher asked if we were ready.

30. Betty asked Mary if she was having her lunch now.]

31. He told me to be careful and not to cut my finger.

32. He told the old woman not to worry and he would take her there.

33. She asked me if I had been to the meeting the day before.

34. She asked if we would be quiet.

35. The man asked me how many times I had been there.

36. I said, “there is not any trouble, and I am waiting fro my change. ”

37. They said, “We won’t come by air only because we haven’t enough money.”

38. The driver said, “I haven’t seen the sign, so I haven’t stop.”

39. My brother said to me, “ I ‘m surely to be able to master English.”

40. He said, “ I haven’t quite understood the sentence, can you translate it into Chinese?”

41. Mike’s father said to him, “you ought to work even harder.”

42. He said to his assistant, “You will not give up the experiment.”

43. I warned the children, “ Don’t go swimming in the lake.”

44. My mother said, “You look rather tired, you’d better go and live for a while.”

45. Della asked, “Jim, give it to me quickly.”

46. He said, “I can hardly support my family.”

47. You said, “I have woven the cloth by now.”

48. “ I will come again tomorrow.” Mary said just now

49. The woman asked him, “Why does he have to sleep in the open air?”

50. The headmaster suggested to the students, “You should go skating! ”

51. He told me, “Go on with your work.”

52. He asked me, “ Do you have any difficulty?”

53. Li Ming said, “ I joined the League in August 1980.”

54. He asked me, “ Are you a Party member or a League Member?”

55. Wang said to the teacher, “I am not feeling well today.”

56. Zhang said to me, “I have a meeting this afternoon , I can’t go with you.”

57. I asked, “Have you seen the exhibition, Mother?”

58. The teacher asked me, “Iis everything ready?”

59. My aunt told me, “ Keep warm and don’t go out.”

60. The worker said to me, “it will take him two days to finish the work.”

 

 
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